9 Uses of Fiber Optic Cables

Fiber optic cables are cables that contain several thousands of optical fibers in a protective, insulated jacket. The optical fibers are very thin strands of pure glass, which transmit information in the form of light. Fiber optic cables have revolutionized the world of network communication ever since their inception nearly four decades ago. Today, these cables have almost obliterated traditional methods of networking, which use metallic wires. Some of the most popular uses of fiber optic cables are listed below.

  1. Internet

Fiber optic cables transmit large amounts of data at very high speeds. This technology is therefore widely used in internet cables. As compared to traditional copper wires, fiber optic cables are less bulky, lighter, more flexible, and carry more data.

  1. Cable Television

The use of fiber optic cables in the transmission of cable signals has grown explosively over the years. These cables are ideal for transmitting signals for high definition televisions, because they have greater bandwidth and speed. Also, fiber optic cables are cheaper as compared to the same quantity of copper wire.

  1. Telephone

Calling telephones within or outside the country has never been so easy. With the use of fiber optic communication, you can connect faster and have clear conversations without any lag on either side.

  1. Computer Networking

Networking between computers in a single building or across nearby structures is made easier and faster with the use of fiber optic cables. Users can see a marked decrease in the time it takes to transfer files and information across networks.

  1. Surgery and Dentistry

Fiber optic cables are widely used in the fields of medicine and research. Optical communication is an important part of non-intrusive surgical methods, popularly known as endoscopy. In such applications, a minute, bright light is used to light up the surgery area within the body, making it possible to reduce the number and size of incisions made. Fiber optics are also used in microscopy and biomedical research.

  1. Lighting and Decorations

The use of fiber optics in the area of decorative illumination has also grown over the years. Fiber optic cables provide an easy, economical and attractive solution to lighting projects. As a result, they are widely used in lighting decorations and illuminating Christmas trees.

  1. Mechanical Inspections

Fiber optic cables are widely used in the inspection of hard-to-reach places. Some such applications are on-site inspections for engineers and also inspection of pipes for plumbers.

  1. Military and Space Applications

With the high level of data security required in military and aerospace applications, fiber optic cables offer the ideal solution for data transmission in these areas.

  1. Automotive Industry

Fiber optic cables play an important role in the lighting and safety features of present day automobiles. They are widely used in lighting, both in the interior and exterior of vehicles. Because of its ability to conserve space and provide superior lighting, fiber optics is used in more vehicles every day. Also, fiber optic cables can transmit signals between different parts of the vehicle at lightning speed. This makes them invaluable in the use of safety applications such as traction control and airbags.

Fiber optic cables have any array of uses that go beyond what most people are aware of. You could have been using them all along and not have even known!

What Is Electrical Junction Box?

Electrical junction box is a very important part of your electrical wiring system. Without a junction box, you simply cannot have many different types of electrical outlets, switches, or data hook ups in a room.

Control Box

The electrical junction box is the place where all the wires in a room, or wiring area, are joined together and fed by the main breaker. Junction boxes can then be called a control room of sorts. They send power from the main breaker to the other parts of the room. These junction boxes are usually hid behind the drywall, or paneling as they serve no aesthetic function.

Metal or Plastic

An electrical junction box can be made of either metal or plastic. The larger of the two being able to hold up to five different wires, while the smaller only three.

Needed for Several Installations

If you are going to be installing several different types of electrical components in a room, then you will need to tie into the existing wiring somewhere. A junction box makes that easier by allowing you to connect directly to the main breaker. This negates the need to running wire through the entire house back to the breaker.

How to Crimp Cable Lugs?

General Information

Compression connections require matching of compression cable lugs, conductors and tool size. That will provide best results: a durable, reliable connection.

Preparation

  • All compression cable lugs are stamped with cross section specification.
  • Select the compression tool die corresponding to this size.
  • The hexagon compressions are carried out by means of mechanical, hydraulic or electrical tools.
  • “Cu” marked dies have to be used for copper compression cable lugs.
  • “Al” dies are used for aluminum or aluminum alloy compression cable lugs.
  • In the case of hydraulic tools differentiation regarding the conductor materials is not necessary.

Assembly instruction:

1. Strip conductor to sleeve length a+10%

    

2. Remove all tapes/yarn/powder or similar conductor filling materials before mounting

3. Erase dirt and oxide layers from the conductor using a metal brush

4. Insert conductor into compression sleeve up to the stop or inspection hole

5. Before compression verify the die code with the size mark on the lug

6. Start compression from the palm side to the barrel end

    

7. The number and position of the compression points is indicated by marking lines. Attention: All markings must be compressed

8. Final Check: The extension length of the sleeve is about 5 % by correct compression with correct conductor – cable lug – die – combination

9. Remove excess grease

When to Use Flexible Metal Conduits?

Electrical conduit protects and routes electrical wiring. It can be made of many materials, including metal, plastic, fiber, or fired clay. There is flexible, as in this case, and rigid conduit available. The type of conduit used is determined wiring regulations by national and local codes.

When to use flexible metal conduits versus a rigid conduit can be determined by analyzing your wiring situation and see what type of conduit will work best. Flexible metal conduit can typically be found in sizes of 1/2 to 3/4 inches, although it ranges in size from 3/8 to 4 inches in diameter. It is primarily used in places where a rigid conduit would be difficult to install as the flexible conduit will bend to fit.

Although flexible conduit is easier to work with than rigid conduit, it offers less protection for the conductors it carries. Bending a rigid conduit can be an arduous task so it is often preferable to opt for the flexible variety. Being a metal conduit, it has an advantage over PVC conduit (which can not bend) as it may also serve as the grounding path although some local codes may require that you also run a green grounding wire.

The Basics of Flexible Metal Conduit

Flexible metal conduits are made from steel or aluminum by coiling a self-interlock ribbed strip of the metal. This forms a tube. The diameter of this tube can vary and different end applications call for different diameter tubes. Wires are pulled through this tube and are thereby protected from damage, both internal and external. More on this will be covered later.

The tubing is flexible and can bend to fit your installation application. Unlike rigid conduits where you either have to manually bend the conduit to a fixed position or buy a pre-bent conduit, the flexible metal conduit can change its shape as you install and as repairs or changes need to be made. The word flexible in its name may refer to its ability to flex in a given situation, but it also can refer to the flexibility it offers in your installation.

Short segments of FMC are called whips. You often find these as circuit pigtails between junction boxes and fixtures. A suspended ceiling is an excellent application for a flexible metal conduit whip. Whip assemblies are available for sale and can save you time when you need several of these pigtails.

NEC Regulations

NEC has set forth regulations and restrictions on the length of a flexible metal conduit in a lighting fixture application. Their guideline has been a limit of six feet to limit the ground return path. There are exceptions to this rule and you need to view the actual code to see if you have a situation were longer length of conduit is allowed. Check local codes for more NEC regulations on conductivity and grounding.

Location of Installation

Flexible metal conduits are primarily used in dry applications although FMC is available with a UV resistant polymer that makes it water tight. Appropriate liquid tight fittings are required when using this type of conduit in a wet application.

Flexible metal conduits can be installed in most of the same places that rigid conduits are installed.

Fire Protection

All conduits offer, to some degree, passive fire protection. The conduit can be both fire stopping by impeding the spread of the fire as well as fireproofing. The conduit can shield your wires from an accidental fire. A flexible metal conduit will do a better job at protecting from fire than a PVC conduit will.

Knowing when to use flexible metal conduits is important. This will help ensure safety and that you are up to code.

How to choose Copper Cable Lugs?

On the market, hundreds of different kinds of cable lugs are available. For the electrician, it is very difficult to choose from this broad range the correct cable lug for each specific application. The following article gives an overview of the different types of cable lugs for copper conductors and details the facts which will guarantee a safe and long-lasting connection.

At first, we differentiate between two types of cable lugs

DIN46235 Copper Compression Cable Lugs   Copper Compression Cable Lugs C Type

                          Picture 1                                                          Picture 2

Compression cable lugs according to DIN 46235

DIN standard 46235 defines the application, dimensions and marking of cable lugs. This standard allows use of these cable lugs for compression of solid, stranded, fine stranded and finest stranded copper conductors. The Utilities market for instance offer a wide range of applications.

For installing, the DIN standard recommends crimping dies according to DIN 48083, part1, 3 and 4 for solid, stranded and fine stranded conductors. For braided ropes the standard refers to the information of the manufacturer.

KINGO generally recommends the use of hexagon crimping dies according to DIN 48083, part 4 for installing of compression cable lugs DIN 46235. Range of cross section is from 6 mm² up to 1000 mm², bolt sizes range from 5 mm up to 20 mm. Electrolytic copper according to EN 13600 is mandatory. For corrosion protection, compression cable lugs – also tubular cable lugs and terminals – are tin plated.

Copper tube cable lugs

Apart from DIN cable lugs, many manufacturers also offer tubular cable lugs. As far as sizes are concerned, tubular cable lugs are mostly shorter than DIN cable lugs and also differ in tube dimensions (Picture 3, 4). However, since these lugs are also subject to test standard IEC 1238 part 1, durability of electrical and mechanical connection is not affected.

                     Picture 3                                                  Picture 4

All cable lugs – irrespective of type – can only be crimped properly when a suitable tool is used. Incorrect tools or an unprofessional crimp can result in increased joint resistance, increased temperatures and even fire. (Picture 5). To exclude such consequences, KINGO recommends for crimping of their cable lugs the exclusive use of their appropriate crimping tools.

                     Picture 5